Our sitting room is decorated in Angels this year. The fireplace is cast brass.
Since our mansion will be 123 years old this month I thought it would be appropriate to share with you the newspaper coverage of the open house.
Cheyenne Daily Leader
July 27, 1888
A BEAUTIFUL MANSION
Its Hospitable Doors Thrown Wide Open Last Evening, Mr. and Mrs. Nagle’s Reception in Their New House and A Brief Description of the Mansion’s Many Beauties
The recently completed residence of Mr. and Mrs. E. Nagle was ablaze with light and brilliancy last evening. The occasion was a house warming party with which they signalized their occupancy of the new structure. No very elaborate exterior decorations were attempted. Chinese lanterns strung about the lawn alone giving a gala appearance to the surroundings.
For the accommodation of the guests the new residence was thrown open to the roof, whilst in the old residence, which adjoined, the orchestra was stationed which provided music for those who desired to indulge in the pleasure of dancing.
By 9 o’clock visitors began to rapidly arrive and soon the mansion was thronged. The guests were received by Mr. and Mrs. Nagle and their niece, Miss Hibbard. Little groups of people found their way all over the house and having feasted their eyes with pleasure on the artistic beauties of the lower floors, the ladies particularly had a chance to go into ecstasies over the arrangement above the stairs. Every visitor was charmed with what he saw and congratulations were showered on the host and hostess. Lunch was served by Kabis in very excellent style.
The House Itself
The Nagle mansion, on the northwest corner of Seventeenth and House streets, presents a striking architectural appearance. Its style is Romanesque, and the white stone used in its construction tends to give it a massive appearance. The southeast corner of the building stands out from the direct line of the main structure and gives it its most distinctive and characteristic feature. On the first floor a square bow window, which on the second floor takes a circular form and finally ends above the roof in an octagonal tower. The front and side of the building are frequently relieved with angularities which adds to the beauty. Much of the stone work is finely carved, the gargoyles above the Seventeenth street windows being particularly fine. A portico extends across the main face of the building.
Passing through the double main doors the visitor finds himself in the hallway which divides the house into two equal parts. To the left are folding doors leading to the drawing room and just beyond the door leading into the dining room. To the right is the door leading into the sitting room which in turn opens into the library, an apartment which is also reached from the hallway. Nearly opposite the library door is a stairway leading to the second floor. On the first landing, in full view of the hall is a stained glass window of artistic design through which the light floods in mellowed streams. The hallway is very attractively decorated. The ceiling is laid off in panels of papier mache treated in subdued colors with bronzes and gold leaf. The side walls are of richly stamped leather and the mirror and hat rack framed in antique oak. The hallway itself is finished in cherry. A chandelier of brass in Moorish design depends from the ceiling.
So far as the decorations go, the drawing room is perhaps the most striking apartment of the house. It contains three windows of six feet in height, the center one filled with a single sheet of beveled plate glass, all facing Seventeenth Street. All the woodwork is mahogany but the prevailing tint of the room is a rich cream. The royal Wilton carpet which covers the floor is unique in pattern. The paper is of a mild tint and of a lace pattern. The tinting is exquisite. The ceiling is painted in oil, and the effect of the whole is one of complete artistic harmony. An almost severely plain fireplace in bronze, old brass and copper, occupies the western end of the room. A few artist proof drawings and some brick-a-brac add charm to the interior of this apartment.
Directly opposite is the sitting room. The distinctive characteristic of this apartment is it’s the northeast corner filled with a single sheet of semi circular beveled plate glass six by seven feet in dimension and flanked by two square plate glass windows of smaller size. This unique feature of Cheyenne’s r residence architecture produces an admirable effect. It may be mentioned here that each apartment, so far as its furnishing is concerned, is an artistic study distinct from any other apartment. The prevailing tint in the sitting room is gray blue. The carpets, drapery and wall paper partake of this tint. The woodwork is in antique oak, and the fireplace of plastic work with exquisite panels in bronze.
The adjoining room on the same side of the house is the library, and as benefits its character, the finish is in somewhat somber colors. The carpets and walls are of terra cotta tone. It is finished in antique oak. The fireplace is a very elaborate design and highly ornamental. Panels of stained glass add richness to the room.
The dining room is of a light and airy finish. The walls are of figured felt, yellowish in tone with heavy borders of Lincrusta Walton and ceiling painted in oil. The whole is exquisitely modulated. It is finished in natural oak, its floors being of polished oak, cherry and maple. A sideboard of exquisite workmanship occupies one end of the room. Light is received from two large windows set in frames with copings elaborately carved. Above each plate glass is a square of colored glass set in squares and circles through which the light floods richly. One door leads from this into the butler’s pantry and thence into the kitchen, which possesses all the most modern conveniences.
On the second floor are four large apartments and several smaller ones, each of which is a study in artistic decoration. On the third floor are many other rooms, one of which is formed by the octagonal tower before mentioned, and is intended for a little conservatory. The ceilings on the first floor are eleven feet high and on the second, ten.
The basement itself is one of the most remarkable features of the house. The whole building will be heated by a large Smead furnace. The arrangements for hot and cold air, the big filtering apparatus, the scientific pluming, sewerage, and ventilating system strike one forcibly in contemplating the improved methods in modern architecture. Mr. Nagle himself supervised the whole work, and to his keen judgment the complete success of many unique features is entirely due. The building, exclusive of the grounds and stables, cost about $35,000.
As usual, the newspaper didn’t always get the details right (fireplaces in the parlor and sitting room are cast brass, the entry ceiling is carved leather, etc) but you HAVE to love the flowery Victorian wording. It appears that it was a gala event of the first order.
While I was doing research, I ran across the following article from The Democratic Leader, Cheyenne,Wyoming, Tuesday Morning, May 18, 1880. It tickled me, so I thought I’d share it with you.
MISS GRACIE MORSE ELOPES WITH THE HANDSOME FAMILY COACHMAN, AND CAUSES A GREAT FLUTTER OF EXCITEMENT
THE BRIDE AND GROOM NOW IN HIDING
New York, May 17 — Society in Tarrytown was thrown into a flutter of excitement this evening by the announcement that Miss Gracie Morse, the eldest daughter of Rev. J. B. Morse, a niece of the late Commodore Vanderbilt, had eloped with the family coachman, George Winter. Rev. Mr. Moore is a missionary preacher attached to Blackwells Island penitentiary. The family has one of the most spacious and elegant residences in Tarrytown. Miss Morse is now Mrs. Winter and is 22 years old, highly educated and attractive, and has been much courted.
Winter is 23 years of age. During the absence of the family today they drove to North Tarrytown and were married, returning to the house intending to keep the matter a secret. It became nosed about and they fled and are now supposed hiding in the town. The family are very much angered and humiliated over the matter.
I’ve been blogging less regularly lately because I’ve been occupied with multiple dental visits. As I pondered a topic for this week I thought it might be interesting to take a look back in time to see what kind of dental care was available in Victorian times. While a number of treatments are quite ancient, many of the techniques we now use were first developed during the 1800’s.
Gold leaf fillings were first recommended by Giovanni d-Arcoli in 1848. Prior to that time fillings were comprised of such things as stone chips (ouch), turpentine resin (yuck), gum (eeewww), and metals. Amalgams incorporating mercury were developed in the early 1800s. While we all know these have been debated in recent years, the original reason for use of mercury does make sense. Those with little mercury in them had to be heated to a high degree in order for the metals to bind (ouch). Including more mercury in the mix made it possible to bind the metals at room temperature. False teeth date back as far as 700 B.C. when the Etruscans made them out of ivory and bone. They were secured in place with a system of gold bridgework. This actually seems like pretty advanced thinking for that time.
The first electric dental drill was patented in 1875 and the patent for the dental chair followed in 1848. Novocain, thankfully, came along in 1884.
There’s historical evidence that about 2700 BC the Chinese used acupuncture to treat tooth pain. In 1884, Carl Koller introduced the first local anesthetic used in dentistry, cocaine. It wasn’t until 1905 that Novocain was developed by a German Chemist, Alfred Einkorn. He was looking for a non-addictive, easy-to-use, safe local anesthetic to be used on soldiers during wartime. Novocain never became popular for military use but it did become widely used by dentists. In 1845, Dr. William Morton, initiated the use of anesthesia for tooth extraction.
In the early days of the old west there were often few professional men in towns. Dentists were often called upon to perform other duties such as healing the sick and wounded, serving as town coroner and/or undertaker, or treating diseased animals.
One of the most famous dentists of the old west was John “Doc” Holliday, DDS, who was originally from Georgia and educated in Philadelphia. Known more for gambling and gun fighting than dentistry, he crammed a lot of living into his 36 years of life. He began practicing dentistry in Atlanta, but having contracted tuberculosis (or “consumption” as it was called at the time) he moved west and lived in various places in Texas, Las Vegas (New Mexico), Denver, Cheyenne, Deadwood, Dodge City, and Tombstone, Arizona. The last years of his life were spent in Leadville, Colorado where his health continued to deteriorate as he became increasingly dependent on alcohol and laudanum. He died in a sanatorium in Glenwood Springs, Colorado and is buried in Linwood Cemetery. Legend has it that his last words were, “Now that’s funny.”
Cattle ranching in Wyoming began in the 1850’s but it was not until the end of the Civil War and the coming of the Union Pacific Railroad that cattle drives became big business in Cheyenne. During the Civil War marketing of range cattle in Texas was slow, creating a large buildup of cattle having little value. About the same time it was discovered that if a Texas steer was wintered in the north it took on additional flesh/value, making double-wintering desirable. Cattle valued at $5.00 a head in Texas often brought ten times that amount when delivered north to a railhead. With Native Americans now confined to reservations and the American bison herds diminished, the vacated country became cattle range and the government needed increasing quantities of beef to feed Indian wards and the army. In 1865 Philip Danforth Armour opened a meatpacking plant in Chicago and, with the expansion of this industry, profitability of shipping by railroad increased substantially. This was the impetus for the major cattle drives as well as the heyday of large open range cattle herds owned by international investors and Cheyenne’s cattle barons.
In 1883, it was estimated that 260,000 head of cattle were driven north. On average a herd would move about 15 miles per day, since faster would cause the cattle to lose weight. The typical herd consisted of 1,500 to 2,500 head of cattle, requiring a trail boss and about a dozen men to see them through. Each wrangler had a string of five to ten horses. Larger herds had 15,000 cattle and required bigger crews…including a cook (usually driving a chuck wagon pulled by oxen) and a wrangler to maintain the spare horses. Wranglers were usually young cowboys of lower social status but cooks were more accomplished. In addition to being in charge of food, cooks usually had a practical working knowledge of medicine and maintained a variety of medical supplies.
Crews had bedrolls but no tents or tarps (these were considered an excess luxury). A few were lucky enough to possess slickers. Since there was no way of preserving beef, their food was mostly limited to non-perishables such as kidney beans, dried fruit, sugar, biscuits and coffee. An occasional delicacy on the trail was “slow elk”, a cow from another outfit. “S.O.B. stew” was made of tallow, tongue, liver, sweet breads, brains, marrow gut and just about anything but hooves, horn and hide. Wages were about $40 per month and cowboys were paid when the herd sold. Bonuses were often provided for those who rounded up “slow elk” and managed to brand them and sell them with the herd…rustling.
The most famous cattle towns were railheads, where herds were shipped to the Chicago stockyards. Cattlemen and investors made these towns headquarters for buying and selling cattle. Cowboys who were paid off following months of monotonous work were turned loose on the towns. Businesses that thrived were barbershops, places that sold clothing and gear, and of course brothels and gambling establishments. While violence often had to be quelled by town marshals, the number of killings was small by the standards of eastern cities.
Overgrazing, drought and finally the exceptionally severe winter of 1886-87 brought an end to most of the open-range cattle business.
The Cheyenne Club was a men’s social club organized in 1880 by a group of insanely wealthy stockmen. Originally called the Cactus Club, its members were originally all cattle barons … many of whom wintered in Europe and spent summers in Cheyenne. It had a worldwide reputation and its amenities rivaled those of the best “Gentlemen’s Clubs” in the British Empire. For those of you who have visited us, it was located on the northwest corner of Seventeenth Street and Warren Avenue (directly across the street from Quizno’s parking lot).
The club was an impressive two story brick building with a large veranda, two grand staircases, central heating, tennis courts, an elevator and a large decorative cupola. It sported wine vaults, a smoking room (supplied with fine Havana cheroots), billiard room, card room, lounge and a reading room offering The Drovers Journal and newspapers from New York and Boston. The oak paneled dining room enjoyed a splendid reputation and served many nationally known dignitaries (such as Andrew Carnegie and Teddy Roosevelt). The chef was imported, having been trained in Europe, and the wine vault was filled with the finest vintages. Six elegantly appointed private apartments were located on the second floor for members and their guests (women were not allowed but it is rumored that some high stakes gambling took place in the private rooms). The entire club was decorated with the most sumptuous furnishings and décor available at the time
Member ship was limited to 200, and over time it grew to include the city’s most elite businessmen, state and local legislators, and high-ranking professionals. While it was designated a social club, much informal wheeling and dealing took place there. There was to be “no profanity, no drunkenness, no blows struck, no cheating at cards, no smoking of pipes, no tipping, no betting and no games on Sunday.” There were nineteen hitching posts along the street and local boys received five-dollar tips for tying horses to the posts.
Rules were strictly enforced and several violations of decorum are recorded. John Coble, who provided funds for Tom Horn’s defense, was suspended (and then resigned) after he discharged his .45 into a painting hanging in the Club. Harry Oelrichs, noted for arriving to the Club in his $4,000 coach, kicked a steward and was himself booted from the Club.
The cattle business was effectively ruined after a disastrous blizzard the winter of 1886-1887 and many of the barons lost their money and left Cheyenne. In 1909 the Club’s name was changed to the Industrial Club and in 1927 it was taken over by the Cheyenne Chamber of Commerce. The building was demolished in 1936.
Note: In 1970 there was a film entitled The Cheyenne Social Club that was directed and produced by Gene Kelly. It starred Jimmy Stewart, Henry Fonda and Shirley Jones. James Lee Barrett’s script earned a Writers Guild of America nomination for “Best Comedy Directly Written for the Screen”, however he lost out to Neil Simon for The Out-of-Towners. While the names are similar, the movie’s Cheyenne Social Club was a brothel and did not depict the elite and utterly decorous Cheyenne Club.
John “Portuguese” Phillips is largely credited with bringing the news of the Fetterman disaster through hostile country from Fort Phil Kearney to Fort Laramie. He appears in novels, histories, poems and movies as a Wyoming frontier hero. While his achievement has been somewhat diminished over time, there is still no doubt that he exemplified the essential pioneering qualities of self-sacrifice and endurance.
He was born on the island of Pico, in the Azores in 1832. The fourth of nine children of Felipe and Maria Cardoso, his given name was Manual Felipe Cardoso. As a teenager, he left the Azores on board a whaling vessel bound for California. Like so many others, his intent was to pan for gold.
Over the next 15 years he followed gold discoveries from California to Oregon, Idaho and Montana. In September of 1866 he was working at Fort Phil Kearney as a water carrier for a civilian contractor. On December 21, he volunteered to ride 191 miles to the telegraph office at Horseshoe Station on the Platte River with the dispatches reporting the annihilation of Capt. Fetterman and his troops. While some stories reported that he was alone, he was accompanied by Daniel Dixon, as far as Fort Reno, and by others along the way including Robert Bailey.
Col. Henry Carrington stated that Phillips chose one of his (Carrington’s) horses for the ride. The name of the animal was “Dandy” a “blue grass horse, black with three stocking feet.” Phillips was also assigned a Spencer repeating rifle and 100 rounds of ammunition. His original mission was to ride to the telegraph office at Horseshoe Station on the Platte. At Fort Reno however, he received an additional message to take to Col. Innis Palmer at Fort Laramie. This extended his ride from 191 miles to 236 miles. The challenging ride was made through hostile territory in subzero weather.
He arrived at Horseshoe Station at 10:00 a.m. on December 25th and at Fort Laramie at 11:00 pm. Tales describe the arrival of a huge, frosty Phillips (garbed in buffalo overcoat, pants, gauntlets and cap), bursting in on a full dress ball at Fort Laramie to deliver the message. It was also reported that the horse, sadly, keeled over and died upon arrival. Snow was so deep that the rescue party from Fort Laramie could not leave until January 6. Clearly, Phillips was issued a new horse for the return trip. His pay for the service was $300, which he received in January, 1867. (The experience was priceless!)
Phillips continued to carry mail between Fort Phil Kearny and Fort Laramie until mid-April, 1867. When the army abandoned Fort Phil Kearny he moved to Elk Mountain, west of Cheyenne where he supplied ties for the Union Pacific Railroad during construction of the transcontinental railroad. He then spent another ten years furnishing supplies and transportation back at Fort Laramie and Fort Fetterman.
Phillips was actually a national figure following his adventurous ride. It was reported that when he visited Milwaukee in 1876, he attended a parade honoring presidential candidate Ulysses S. Grant. The procession was stopped and Grant insisted that Phillips ride with him in his buggy.
In December of 1870 he married Hattie Buck, a native of Crownpoint, Indiana. Among their several children, was one named Paul Revere Phillips. (It seems Mr. Phillips may have had a sense of humor.) About the time of his marriage Phillips moved his contracting base to a ranch near Chugwater, north of Cheyenne. Among other ventures on this property were accommodations for travelers, a dairy herd, and (are you ready for this?) he grew watercress. Phillips left his ranch and moved to Cheyenne in 1878 where he remained until his death from nephritis in 1883. John Phillips was preceded in death by four children who are buried beside him. His widow Hattie purchased the headstone stone with borrowed money and left Cheyenne to move back to the Chugwater ranch. Hattie, died in a Los Angeles nursing home at the age of 94.
His tombstone can still be viewed in Lakeview Cemetery in Cheyenne. Located just east of Fort Phil Kearny, the John “Portuguese” Phillips monument is part of the National Historic Landmark designation for the Fort Phil Kearny sites.
The saga of Red Cloud’s war continues. We last left the feisty Fetterman defying his orders and heading off to the Lodge Trail Ridge. Oglala warrior, Crazy Horse, anticipated his arrival and appeared on the ridge. One colorful narrative of the occasion said that some warriors “stood on their ponies and insultingly waggled their bare buttocks at the troopers.” If this is true, it would be one more thing to make pursuit irresistible to Fetterman. Toot-do-doo, off he headed over the ridge in pursuit. Do we even need to say that there were an estimated 1,000-3,000 Indians waiting for him?
Men could hear the gunshots from Fort Phil Kearny and, while there were no white observers left alive, evidence indicated that the cavalry had probably charged the Indians. By the time the trap was sprung there was no opportunity for escape and the entire troop was wiped out.
Upon hearing the gunfire, Carrington immediately sent out Tenedor Ten Eyck with a support force of 40 men. Shortly afterward he sent out an additional 70 men, leaving only 119 men inside the fort and manning the wood train detail. The fort itself prepared for attack but it never came. Another epic tale ensues when John “Portuguese” Phillips volunteered to ride to the telegraph office at Fort Laramie with Carrington’s dispatches regarding the massacre. Phillips was accompanied for various segments of the 190 mile trip (in subzero weather) by Daniel Dixon (to Fort Reno) and Robert Bailey. He became a folk hero for that ride and his story will follow separately.
Meanwhile back at the ridge, Ten Eyck arrived at the ridge top shortly after the firing had ceased. He reported back that he could not see Fetterman’s force but the valley was still filled with Indians taunting him to come down after them. Ten Eyck, however, resisted further engagement.
The cavalry had penetrated the valley further than the rest of the men and it was two days before they were able to recover the bodies of all the soldiers. Eyewitnesses from the army’s burial detail reported that most of the dead soldiers had been scalped, beheaded, dismembered, disemboweled and/or castrated. They reported that the only body unmutilated was that of Adolph Metzler who was a teenaged bugler. It appeared that he’d fought two Indians, using his bugle as a bludgeon. While he received fatal head and chest injuries, his body was found unmolested and had been covered with a buffalo robe by the Indians. While the real reason is unknown, there was speculation that it was a sign of respect for his bravery. Body parts were collected and taken back to Fort Phil Kearny for a somber ceremony and burial in the cemetery outside the fort’s stockade.
The battle was called The Battle of the Hundred Slain by the Indians, while whites called it the Fetterman Massacre. It was the army’s worst defeat on the Great Plains until Custer’s battle at Little Big Horn ten years later.
Many historians believe Red Cloud himself did not take part in the Fetterman battle. They have speculated that he may have been present for the Wagon Box Fight near Fort Phil Kearny on August 2, 1867. It’s said that on that date a small army detachment, using new breech-loading rifles, held off approximately 1,000 Cheyenne and Lakota for about five hours. The previous day the Army had a similar success in the Hayfield Fight.
Several investigations were made into the affair and Carrington was replaced by General Wessels who never launched offensive action against the Indians. By late summer of 1867, the government changed its policy by abandoning efforts to maintain the trail in Powder River country. By that time, the transcontinental railroad was a far more viable alternative for emigration.
Once the Army abandoned its Powder River forts, Red Cloud and Northern Cheyenne representatives signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868. This treaty created the Great Sioux Reservation covering what is now western South Dakota. The treaty also designated the Powder River country as a hunting reserve for Cheyenne and Lakota, that could also be used by those Cheyenne and Lakota who chose not to live on the new reservation.
While Red Cloud was the only Indian leader to win a major war against the U.S., he was much more than a warrior. After 1868 he lived on the reservation and, anticipating that white emigrants would overwhelm the Sioux, Red Cloud became a tireless negotiator and an important advocate for fair treatment of his people. He outlived all of the major Lakota leaders of the Indian wars…living until 1909 when he died on the Pine Ridge Reservation, where he is buried.
The bodies of the U.S. soldiers killed in the 1866 Fetterman battle were reinterred at the U.S. National Cemetery at the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, near Crow Agency, Montana. The Fetterman Monument is located near Sheridan, Wyoming.
Some tales are complicated and one can’t do justice to them unless one takes time. This is just such a tale and it will appear in three parts.
This story encompasses the years 1866-1868 and describes the armed conflict for control of the Powder River Country, in what is now north central Wyoming. This key hunting ground and territory of the Cheyenne and Lakota tribes, was being encroached upon by miners (heading to the Montana gold fields) as well as emigrant settlers and others heading west. Red Cloud was a prominent Oglala Lakota (Sioux) chief whose band formed an alliance with Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho bands to oppose the U.S. military presence in the area.
In 1866, the U.S. government convened a council with the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne at Fort Laramie. The government’s purpose in calling the council was to discuss a treaty to establish a right-of-way (the Bozeman Trail) through the area and to build military posts for protection of the emigrants.
In an unfortunate case of getting the cart before the horse, Col. Henry Carrington arrived while the conference was in session with approximately 1,300 men and construction supplies. He had been ordered to establish and garrison the proposed series of forts. While the so-called “peace commission” had offered annuities to help alleviate near-starvation, they had NOT disclosed their intention to build the forts. (oops)
Red Cloud was incensed by the arrival of troops before the agreement to build the road had been signed. (oops, again) He not only left without signing the agreement, he promised resistance to any whites using the trail or occupying the territory.
Carrington continued to follow his orders and restored old Fort Reno. Proceeding north, he established Fort Phil Kearny on Piney Creek. He then established a third post, Fort C.F. Smith, 91 miles to the northwest of that on the Big Horn River.
Under the leadership of Red Cloud, allied bands attacked troops at Forts Phil Kearney and C.F. Smith, effectively closing travel on the Bozeman Trail. Carrington’s men were largely untrained and only sufficient in number to protect his posts and supply trains, not to escort emigrants or engage in aggressive action.
Carrington was an engineer and political appointee with little or no combat experience. He’d arrived in mid-July and set his manpower and resources to work at building fortifications rather than fighting. Considering the severe Wyoming winters, this was a reasonable thing to do however junior officers, eager for battle, interpreted this as an unwillingness to fight. Carrington also recognized his limitations, the capability of the enemy, their knowledge of the terrain and their vastly superior numbers.
Captain William J. Fetterman arrived at Fort Kearny in 1866. Although Fetterman had seen action during the Civil War, he had no previous experience fighting American Indians. He criticized Carrington’s strategy as “passive,” and boasted that he could do battle and defeat the Indians if he were in command. This created additional unrest among the troops and only a match was needed to set fire to the situation.
In early December, Lt. Horace Bingham was killed while driving off a band of Indians that had attacked the wood train. Attackers led him and his troops over nearby Lodge Trail Ridge where they were overwhelmed by Indian forces and defeated. Carrington recognized the strategy and cautioned his troops about being lead into such decoy activities again. Fetterman ‘s reaction was pure outrage.
Late in the month, the wood train was again attacked. Carrington ordered Capt. James Powell to command a relief party of 49 infantrymen and 27 mounted troops. (Capt. James Powell had, just two days earlier, declined to pursue Indians over a ridge.) Fetterman, however, claimed seniority, received and took command of the relief party and Capt. Powell was left behind. Carrington ordered Fetterman not to cross Lodge Trail Ridge, where relief from the fort would be difficult. Fetterman, however, instead of going to the relief of the wood train, headed quickly toward Lodge Trail Ridge. (While I’ve never been schooled in military tactics, even I know this meant trouble.)
Stay tuned for our next thrilling installment……….